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1 Identification of Collared Pratincole and Oriental Pratincole a critical review of characters L Gerald Driessens & Lars Svensson ittle attention was ever paid to the identification of Oriental Pratincole Glareola maldivarum (hereafter maldivarum) until the most recent generation of field guides was published. Considering the. 30 Apr A free external scan did not find malicious activity on your website. If you still think that your website is infected with malware or hacked, please subscribe to a plan, we will scan your website internally and perform a full manual audit of your site as well as clean any infection that our free scanner didn't point. Hetzelfde geldt voor het derde geval, de slag bij Nieuwpoort. meegedeeldwordt dat Maurits zijn leger naar Vlaanderen overscheepte in een vloot o koets.] kar. Mercurius van 't lichtgesterrent] g t. Mercuur om laegh van 't lichtgestarrent g tgestarre t. sterren] starren,. zydy] site. YY sijtg. 4.

Considering the fact that this species was first reported as a vagrant in Europe as recent as Burnsthis is not surprising.

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Only a few useful field characters Gratis Dating Sites Vlaanderen Zingt Nieuwpoort described until the mid s, making them easily remembered read article most birders but masking the need for a more thorough survey.

Following the record of a suspected maldivarum in the Netherlands in August and one in Sweden August-Octoberand especially after the publication of photographs of these two individuals, some doubts arose about the quality of the criteria to separate Collared Pratincole G pratincola excluding Afrotropical races hereafter pratincola and maldivarum cf Fredriksson et al All currently accepted Western Palearctic records of maldivarum are listed in table 1.

The identification of this species pair appeared to be much more difficult than previously thought. Typical, pale individual, demonstrating obvious contrast between grey-brown tertials and blackish primaries. A short, blackish mouth-line is often present in Collared. Given the current knowledge, it is questionable whether this record should be accepted. On basis of current knowledge, the bird was most probably an Oriental Pratincole after all; the record is now being reconsidered by the CDNA.

The interesting results of these independent studies were confirmed by others, and also expanded by additional findings based on specimens Alexander Hellquist in Tring, Klaus Malling Olsen in Copenhagen and Curt Johnsson in Stockholm, who entered a fruitful discussion on the Internet regarding primarily the Swedish bird, which was accepted as maldivarum by visit web page Swedish rarities committee, cf Svensson The total number of specimens examined exceeds for both pratincola and maldivarum.

This paper is restricted to a comparison of nominate pratincola which breeds from southern Europe and North Africa eastwards to Kazakhstan and Pakistan with maldivarum, which is monotypic. The other subspecies of pratincola all from sub-saharan Africa are dealt with in Driessens Although this is a useful rule of thumb, it does leave out several atypical birds because the variation within the two species is much more extensive than one would expect.

If a pratincole is suspected to be a maldivarum, the critical step is to rule out pratincola safely using other characters, because the lack of very long outer tailfeathers and the absence of a clear white trailing edge can actually also appear in that species.

In order to make a reliable identification, it is important to understand the basics of moult strategy in pratincoles, as well as the variation within a plumage, caused by individual variation, moult and wear.

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Rather pale individual with paler side of head and hindneck. Lacks pale inner border of throat-surround. White secondary tips just visible under greater coverts. Contrast between brown upperparts and black primaries and tail projection typical.

When seen completely head-on, nostril shape and warmer brown side of neck could indicate Oriental Pratincole G maldivarum. Tail length and secondary trailing edge are, however, straightforward indicators for Collared.

Colour difference between darker blacker outer and paler browner inner web to inner primaries is obvious on this photograph. Short-legged impression easy to perceive. Characters on birds observed from c m or more are not always easy to assess in the field. Pratincoles are fast fliers, constantly changing direction, Gratis Dating Sites Vlaanderen Zingt Nieuwpoort them difficult to observe. Contrary to what one might expect, the white trailing edge is not as easy to evaluate against the light. Therefore, one should always try to see the trailing edge on the innerwing when the bird is flying as far away from the sun as possible, and preferably against a deep blue sky, or against a dark background or vegetation.

Solutions can be sent in three different ways: Soft sunlight and age causes tips of outer secondaries to look rather buffy, quite like in Oriental. When the dark tip of the outer tail-feather runs quite a long way down over the shaft, it is indicative of pratincola. High-legged stance and tail length are also visible.

Remember, too, that strong light tends to increase contrasts, so even a thin white edge for Make Your Own Online Dating Site began strike the observer as prominent. In our experience with large colonies of breeding pratincola, there are always a few birds with seemingly slightly shorter outer tail-feathers and hence a less deep tail-forkpresumably being mostly second-calendar-year females.

However, quite often, after prolonged and careful study, such birds have either tail-streamers of slightly uneven length, or a tail-fork which is only moderately shallower than the rest of the birds in the colony, indicating how easily our eyes can pick up the smallest deviation from normal proportions.

We have not yet seen a pratincola in a breeding colony with such short outer tailfeathers as to invite confusion with maldivarum. Comparison of the moult cycles of the two species shows that they are similar, or nearly so. Therefore, the following data apply to both species, unless mentioned Gratis Dating Sites Vlaanderen Zingt Nieuwpoort.

Small differences in moult strategy between the two species, where they exist, are partly concealed by variation within each species. One has to take into account that not all birds follow one single strategy, and the dates when the moult is started or completed can differ considerably even by months within the same species on the same locality. Arrested post-juvenile moult Juvenile pratincoles begin the complete or nearly complete moult to their first-winter plumage in August-September.

While the body-feathers are Gratis Dating Sites Vlaanderen Zingt Nieuwpoort, a descendent replacement of the inner primaries takes place ie, from inner to outerfollowed by the secondaries ascendently ie, from outer to innerand finally the tail-feathers centrifugally ie, from inner to outer. Generally, most of the body-feathers are replaced before the moult of the remiges is arrested for migration. Most pratincoles have acquired first-winter plumage in More info, when the body moult is largely completed.

In this stage while arresting the moult of the remigesthe outer primaries and most of the tail-feathers are still old juvenile. The moult is completed on the wintering grounds from October onwards and, by February, all feathers have generally been renewed. Some individuals retain the odd juvenile outer primary, inner secondary, outer tertial or some coverts.

Partial first pre-nuptial moult Before the post-juvenile moult is completed, pratincoles start their partial moult to firstsummer plumage. In this moult, most of the feathers on head and underparts and a smaller amount of the feathers on the upperparts are replaced.

As this is a partial body moult, any retained juvenile primaries, secondaries, tertials or wing-coverts remain. When leaving the wintering grounds or arriving in the breeding summering area, this moult has ended or nearly so and birds are in their first-summer plumage. In the case of a complete moult, the resulting plumage can not be separated from that of adults.

Only when some juvenile feathers are retained, ageing as first-summer is possible. Complete first post-nuptial moult The first post-nuptial moult, which is the moult to second-winter adult-winter plumage, is nearly identical to the post-juvenile moult with the difference that it is invariably complete.

The inner primary moult is followed by the replacement of the outer secondaries and the central tail-feathers. When suspending the moult because of autumn migration, in September- Novemberthe outer primaries and outer tailfeathers are still old, as are some of the secondaries, tertials, wing-coverts and rarely some body-feathers.

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These feathers will be replaced after arrival on the wintering grounds, usually in December but sometimes not before February. Brown lore and pale throat suggest a female. Dark chest could suggest Oriental Pratincole G maldivarum. Nostril shape, amount of red on lower mandible and long contrasting white wedge on outer tail-feathers are, however, useful characters for Collared.


Ideal angle to assess colour difference between darker outer and paler inner web of inner primaries in Collared. This feature is never shown by Oriental Pratincole G maldivarum. Partial pre-nuptial moult Like in the second calendar-year, the partial moult to adult-summer plumage overlaps with the previous moult.

Roughly, it coincides with the completion of the complete first post-nuptial moult, between October and February thus coinciding with the replacement of the last primaries and tail-feathers. The feathers of the head and underparts Gratis Dating Sites Vlaanderen Zingt Nieuwpoort completely renewed, as well as an unknown portion of the upperparts. At Gratis Dating Sites Vlaanderen Zingt Nieuwpoort in maldivarum, all body-feathers are renewed, go here including those of the upperparts.

This may also be the case in pratincola but no details were available for verification. In late autumn and early winter, adult pratincola replaces the complete set of secondaries. First, the outer ones are renewed, then moult progresses inwards. After completion of the moult, wear will become first visible on the outer secondaries, as they were replaced first. Additional remarks on ageing The individual variation in moult progress can make the ageing process more difficult than moult theory implies.

First, one should keep in mind that some first-winters moult to first-summer plumage quite early in autumn. Some individuals, for example, have been found to have largely replaced the throat-feathers by summer-type feathers as early as October.

Second, first-winter pratincoles that have gone through a complete post-juvenile moult will not be separable from adults on plumage differences alone. In such birds, ageing can be possible by using the colour of the bill-base. Juveniles and first-winters show a more brownish bill base, never as bright red as first-summer and adult birds.

It is not clear whether there is a difference in the intensity of the red bill base between first-summers and adults. In museum skins, the bare part colours have often faded considerably, making an assessment of several specimens unreliable.

Four new, or little used, characters are described here: Four other characters can only be used as supplementary hints for maldivarum, since large overlap exists between both species: We were able to study the characters in detail.

They are described here in the same order. For the remaining characterswe offer some new data. Previously published characters 1 No obvious Gratis Dating Sites Vlaanderen Zingt Nieuwpoort trailing edge to secondaries The presence article source absence of a white trailing edge is considered to be one of the most important features for separating maldivarum from pratincola.

Very rarely, pratincola can have a much reduced white trailing edge even in fresh plumage, as studied skins from autumn and early spring indicate. It is thus clear that the prominence of the trailing edge depends on natural variation, plumage wear and age of the bird. In spring, the inner secondaries will theoretically show broad whitish tips, not only because they were replaced more recently but also because the trailing edge is broader on the inner secondaries by nature.

Pratincola with rather fresh secondaries is identified easily by the mm wide trailing edge on the secondaries, although the white edge can be much reduced even when fresh less than 1 mm in one studied skin!

The trailing edge can also wear off. In spring April-Maymost Gratis Dating Sites Vlaanderen Zingt Nieuwpoort show a slightly to moderately worn trailing edge often less than 1 mm remaining on the outer secondaries and c 3 mm on the inner.

In moderately worn birds, this results in a slightly serrated trailing edge but in more heavily worn individuals, the effect can be much more striking, with the serrations being deeper and showing some projecting white shafts, or remainders of them.

In such birds, the white trailing edge can be reduced to only 0. In extremely worn pratincola, the trailing edge can disappear completely. Therefore, some birds in early May when wear sets in more markedly, coinciding with the onset of breeding have only a few white tips or projecting shafts left.

Oriental Pratincole 4 Typical adult showing glossy black-brown primaries. T6 shows a long white wedge on the outer web. For each round, only one entry per person is accepted which will be the first received. Elongated Collared silhouette is not yet developed as the primaries are still rather short.

So, the warning that in worn plumage about March- Julymuch of the white tips of secondaries may have disappeared is justified. Outer secondaries on left, tertials on right. A fresh, broadly tipped adult.

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Note broad white tips, inner secondaries clearly darker centred than outer, outer secondaries with narrow fringe. B fresh, narrowly tipped adult. Some show a very narrow trailing edge, comparable with some juvenile Oriental Pratinoles G maldivarum. The contrast between outer and inner secondaries remains present. C heavily worn adult.

On many click, the white tip has almost disappeared.